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THE TOWER OF LONDON
-- CLASSIC NIGHT VIEW --

The Tower of London is a dominating landmark in central London—in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets— on the eastern border of the City of London, beside the northern bank of the River Thames.

The Tower of London was founded in 1078 when William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built inside the SE angle of the City walls, adjacent to the Thames [1]. This was as much to protect the Normans from the people of the City of London as to protect London from outside invaders. William ordered the Tower to be built of stone which he had specially imported from France and appointed Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester as the architect.
In the 12th century King Richard the Lionheart enclosed the White Tower with a curtain wall and had a moat dug around it filled with water from the Thames. The moat was not very successful until Henry III, in the 13th century, employed a Dutch moat building technique.
Henry III transformed the Tower into a major royal residence and had palatial buidings constructed within the Inner Bailey.
The fortification was completed by between 1275 and 1285 by Edward I who built the outer curtain wall, completely enclosing the inner wall and thus creating a concentric double defence.

The Tower remained a royal residence until the time of Oliver Cromwell who demolished the old palatial buidings.
The Tower did serve as the headquarters of the Board of Ordnance until 1855, and the Tower was still occasionally used as a prison, even through both World Wars. In 1780, the Tower held its only American prisoner, former President of the Continental Congress, Henry Laurens. In World War I, 11 German spies were shot in the Tower. Irish rebel Roger Casement was imprisoned in the Tower during his trial on treason charges in 1916. The German spy Carl Hans Lody has the distinction of being the last person to be executed in the Tower. He was shot on August 15, 1941 during World War II.
Although it is no longer occupied by the Royal Family, the Tower officially remains a royal residence, and as such, maintains a permanent Guard—this is found by the unit forming the Queen's Guard at Buckingham Palace. Two sentries are maintained during the hours that the Tower is open, with one stationed outside the Jewel House and one outside the Queen's House.

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Additional Photos by Wolf Dieter Gomez Ringe (wodigori) Silver Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 38 W: 18 N: 53] (171)
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