Photographer's Note

The Moscow Kremlin is one of the largest architectural ensembles of the world included into the World Heritage List of UNESCO.
To the right you can see The Ivan the Great Bell-Tower complex which is the key of the Kremlins composition. It had been constructed for over than three centuries from 1505 till 1815 and includes three objects of different time (from left to right): the pillar of the Ivan the Great Bell-Tower, the Uspenskaya (Assumption) Belfry and the Filarets Annex. The bell-tower was constructed in 1505-1508 by Italian architect Bon Fryazin and later was overbuilt by the order of Tzar Boris Godunov, so its height reached 81 meter. For two centuries it had been the tallest building in Russia.
In the centre are the domes of the Archangels Cathedral which history dates back to 1333 when the foundation of a church devoted to St. Archangel Michael was laid. The present cathedral was erected in 1505-1508 by especially invited Venetian architect Aleviz Novy. Up to the 18th century the Archangels Cathedral had been a burial place of Moscow Princes and Tzars.
To the left is the Grand Kremlin Palace erected on the initiative of Nicholas I in 1838-1850 as a new imperial residence. Its 700 inner chambers are gorgeously decorated in various styles from the Renaissance to the Byzantine-Russian. Nowadays the Grand Kremlin Palace houses the residence of the President.
On the foreground there are the Moskvoretsky (Moscow-river) bridge and five Kremlin towers (from right to left): The Beklemishev Tower (46,2m) - of a very important strategic role as it protected the main ferry across the Moskva River and took first attacks, The Peter Tower (27,15m), The 2nd Nameless Tower (30,2m), The 1st Nameless Tower (34,15m) - a gunpowder storage place in 15-16th centuries and The Secret Tower (38,4m) - to protect the river side of the Kremlin. It had a fire turret, cache-well and a secret underground passage to the river.

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Additional Photos by Vsevolod Khasanov (Joker) Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 81 W: 25 N: 81] (312)
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