Photographer's Note

Castle Square (Polish: Plac Zamkowy) is a historic square in front of the Royal Castle the former official residence of Polish monarchs located in Warsaw, Poland. The Square, of somewhat triangular shape, features the landmark Sigismund's Column to the south-west, and is surrounded by historic townhouses. It marks the beginning of the bustling Royal Route extending to the south.

Thecolumncommemorating kingSigismund III of Poland(a work by Clemente Molli, erected in 1644) is the oldest and one of the symbolic landmarks of the city and the firstsecularmonument in the form of a column in modern history. On the east side of the square stands theRoyal Castlereconstructed afterthe devastationofWorld War II. It was formerly the residence of the dukes ofMazovia, and then of the Polish kings and grand dukes ofLithuaniafrom the 16th to 18th centuries. TheGermansbombed and blew it up in the beginning ofWorld War II(September 1939), and then completelydestroyedin 19441945.

This square has witnessed many dramatic scenes inPolish history. Patriotic demonstrations took place there during the period before the outbreak of theJanuary uprisingof 1863. On 27 February 1861,Russianbullets killed five people. On 8 April 1861 fiverotaof infantry and twotroopsof Russian cavalry (about 1,300 people) led by GeneralStepan Aleksandrovich Khrulyovcarried out a bloody massacre of civilians, resulting in the deaths of more than 100 people. During martial law the square became the scene of the particularly brutal riot, with ZOMO (Motorized Refugees of the Citizens' Militia) police rushing through demonstrations on 3 May 1982.

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Additional Photos by Zbigniew Kalinowski (fotka) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 561 W: 9 N: 1493] (6711)
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